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考研英语翻译中“表达观点”的译法

日期:2019-11-22编辑作者:澳门新葡亰娱乐

  陈阳—英语教研室

  十、英译汉中的惯用法

  无论在中文行文或是英文表达的过程中,都会出现某个人表达自己的观点的情况。而考研[微博]英语翻译考查的句子中也不乏类似表达,那么下面我们就来看一下,在考研英语真题中,出现了哪些用于表达观点的词语。而对于这些表达,我们又该如何处理。

  参考例年考题

  这些词语根据意义可以分成两类:

  People have wondered for a long time how their personalities and behaviors are formed. It is not easy to explain why one person is intelligent and another is not,or why one is cooperative and another is competitive.

  第一类,直接译为“认为”的动词:

  Social scientists are,of course,extremely interested in these types of questions. (61) They want to explain why we possess certain characteristics and exhibit certain behaviors. There are no clear answers yet,but two distinct schools of thought on the matter have developed. As one might expect,the two approaches are very different from each other. The controversy is often conveniently referred to as “nature vs. nurture.”

  例1.           

  (62) Those who support the “nature” side of the conflict believe that our personalities and behavior patterns are largely determined by biological factors. (63) That our environment has little,if anything,to do with our abilities, characteristics and behavior is central to this theory.

  Behaviorists, in contrast, say

  Taken to an extreme,this theory maintains that our behavior is pre-determined to such a great degree that we are almost completely governed by our instincts.

  that differences in scores are due to the fact that blacks are often deprivedof many of the educational and other environmental advantages that whitesenjoy. (1990年65题)

  Those who support the “nurture” theory,that is,they advocate education,are often called behaviorists. They claim that our environment is more important than our biologically based instincts in determining how we will act. A behaviorist,B. F. Skinner,sees humans as beings whose behavior is almost completely shaped by their surroundings.

  译文:相比而言,行为主义者认为……

  (64) The behaviorists maintain that,like machines,humans respond to environmental stimuli as the basis of their behavior.

  例2.           

  Let us examine the different explanations about one human characteristic,intelligence,offered by the two theories.

  Those who support the “nature” side of the conflict believe that our personalities and behaviorpatterns are largely determined by biological factors。(1990年62题)

  (65) Supporters of the “nature” theory insist that we are born with a certain capacity for learning that is biologically determined. Needless to say: They don''t believe that factors in the environment have much influence on what is basically a predetermined characteristic. On the other hand,behaviorists argue that our intelligence levels are the product of our experiences.

  译文:那些在争论中支持“天性”一方的人们认为……

  (66) Behaviorists suggest that the child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual development.

  例3.           

  The social and political implications of these two theories are profound. (67) In the United States,blacks often score below whites on standardized intelligence tests. This leads some “nature”proponents to conclude that blacks are biologically inferior to whites.

  And it is imagined bymany that the operations of the common mind can be by no means compared withthese processes, and that they have to be acquired by a sort of specialtraining. (1993年74题)

  (68) Behaviorists,in contrast,say that differences in scores are due to the fact that blacks are often deprived of many of the educational and other environmental advantages that whites enjoy.

  译文:很多人认为……

  Most people think neither of these theories can yet fully explain human behavior.

  例4.           

  61.他们想要说明,为什么我们具有某些性格特征和表现出某些行为。

  Some philosophers argue

  62.在这场争论中,赞成“天性”一方的那些人认为,我们的性格特征和行为模式大多是由生物因素所决定的。

  that rights exist only within a social contract, as part of an exchange ofduties and entitlements. (1997年72题)

  63.这种理论的核心是,我们的环境同我们的才能、性格特征和行为即使有什么关系的话,也是微不足道的。

  译文:有些哲学家认为……

  64.行为主义者坚信,人象机器一样,对环境的刺激作出反应,这是他们行为的基础。

  例5.           

  65.支持“天性”论的人坚持说,我们生来就具有一定的学习才能,这是由生物因素决定的。

  The Greeks assumed thatthe structure of language had some connection with the process of thought,which took root in Europe long before people realized how diverse languagescould be。(2004年61题)

  66.行为主义者的看法是,如果一个儿童在有许多刺激物的环境里成长,而这些刺激物能够发展其作出适当反应的能力,那么,这个儿童将会有更高的智力发展。

  译文:希腊人认为……

  67.在美国,黑人在标准化智力测试中的成绩常常低于白人。

  例6.           

  68.相反,行为主义者认为,成绩的差异是由于黑人往往被剥夺了白人在教育及其它环境方面所享有的许多有利条件。

  Darwin was convinced thatthe loss of these tastes was not only a loss of happiness, but might possiblybe injurious to the intellect, and more probably to the moral character。(2008年50题)

[上一页] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]

  译文:达尔文认为……

    更多信息请访问:新浪考研频道 考研论坛 考研博客圈

  其它出现表示“认为”的意义的句子还包括1994年的71题,1997年

  特别说明:由于各方面情况的不断调整与变化,新浪网所提供的所有考试信息仅供参考,敬请考生以权威部门公布的正式信息为准。

  74题,2004年的65题和2008年的46题。

  第二类词语,根据词语本身含义来表达观点。

  例7.           

  They want to explain whywe possess certain characteristics and exhibit certain behaviors。(1990年61题)

  译文:他们想要解释……

  例8.           

  Behaviorists suggest thatthe child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli whichdevelop his or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greaterintellectual development。(1990年64题)

  译文:行为主义者建议……

  例9.           

  “In short,” a leaderof the new school contends, “thescientific revolution, as we call it, was largely the improvement and inventionand use of a series of instruments that expanded the reach of science ininnumerable directions。”(1994年72题)

  译文:简言之,一位新学派的领袖认为坚持称……

  例10.       

  But that, Pearson points out,is only the start of man-machine integration:“It will be the beginning of thelong process of integration that will ultimately lead to a fully electronichuman before the end of the next century。”(2001年73题)

  译文:但是,皮尔森指出……

  例11.       

  This alone demonstrates thatthe television business is not an easy world to survive in, a fact underlinedby statistics that show that out of eighty European television networks, noless than 50% took a loss in

  1. (2005年48题)

  译文:仅这一点就证明……

  例12.       

  He asserted, also, thathis power to follow a long and purely abstract train of thought was verylimited, for which reason he felt certain that he never could have succeededwith mathematics。(2008年47)

  译文:他也断言……

  例13.       

  He adds humbly thatperhaps he was “superior to the common run of men in noticing things whicheasily escape attention, and in observing them carefully。”(2008年49题)

  译文:他谦虚的补充道……

  除了上述两类,我们仍需要注意的是,不仅是单个动词可以用于表达观点,有时长的词组也可以用来表达观点。

  例14.       

  It may be said that the measure of theworth of any social institution is its effect in enlarging and improvingexperience, but this effect is not a part of its original motive。(2009年46题)

  译文:有人认为……

  例15.       

  On the whole such aconclusion can be drawn with a certain degree of confidence, but only ifthe child can be assumed to have had the same attitude towards the test as theothers with whom he is being compared, and only if he was not punished by lackof relevant information which they possessed。(1992年75题)

  译文:总体来说我们有信心得出这样的结论……

  例16.       

  but we have at least drawnnear the point of admitting that birds should continue as a matter ofintrinsic right, regardless of the presence or absence of economic advantage tous。(2010年47题)

  译文:但是我们至少可以认为……

  同学们在准备考研翻译的过程中,不妨将这些词汇总结出来,在翻译的时候如果遇到表达观点的词汇,就可以直接使用,减少思考时间。

  文章来源:跨考教育[微博]

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