People have wondered for a long time how their personalities and behaviors are formed. It is not easy to explain why one person is intelligent and another is not,or why one is cooperative and another is competitive.
Social scientists are,of course,extremely interested in these types of questions. (61) They want to explain why we possess certain characteristics and exhibit certain behaviors. There are no clear answers yet,but two distinct schools of thought on the matter have developed. As one might expect,the two approaches are very different from each other. The controversy is often conveniently referred to as “nature vs. nurture.”
(62) Those who support the “nature” side of the conflict believe that our personalities and behavior patterns are largely determined by biological factors. (63) That our environment has little,if anything,to do with our abilities, characteristics and behavior is central to this theory.
Behaviorists, in contrast, say
Taken to an extreme,this theory maintains that our behavior is pre-determined to such a great degree that we are almost completely governed by our instincts.
that differences in scores are due to the fact that blacks are often deprivedof many of the educational and other environmental advantages that whitesenjoy. (1990年65题)
Those who support the “nurture” theory,that is,they advocate education,are often called behaviorists. They claim that our environment is more important than our biologically based instincts in determining how we will act. A behaviorist,B. F. Skinner,sees humans as beings whose behavior is almost completely shaped by their surroundings.
(64) The behaviorists maintain that,like machines,humans respond to environmental stimuli as the basis of their behavior.
Let us examine the different explanations about one human characteristic,intelligence,offered by the two theories.
Those who support the “nature” side of the conflict believe that our personalities and behaviorpatterns are largely determined by biological factors。(1990年62题)
(65) Supporters of the “nature” theory insist that we are born with a certain capacity for learning that is biologically determined. Needless to say： They don''t believe that factors in the environment have much influence on what is basically a predetermined characteristic. On the other hand,behaviorists argue that our intelligence levels are the product of our experiences.
(66) Behaviorists suggest that the child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual development.
The social and political implications of these two theories are profound. (67) In the United States,blacks often score below whites on standardized intelligence tests. This leads some “nature”proponents to conclude that blacks are biologically inferior to whites.
And it is imagined bymany that the operations of the common mind can be by no means compared withthese processes, and that they have to be acquired by a sort of specialtraining. (1993年74题)
(68) Behaviorists,in contrast,say that differences in scores are due to the fact that blacks are often deprived of many of the educational and other environmental advantages that whites enjoy.
Most people think neither of these theories can yet fully explain human behavior.
Some philosophers argue
that rights exist only within a social contract, as part of an exchange ofduties and entitlements. (1997年72题)
The Greeks assumed thatthe structure of language had some connection with the process of thought,which took root in Europe long before people realized how diverse languagescould be。(2004年61题)
Darwin was convinced thatthe loss of these tastes was not only a loss of happiness, but might possiblybe injurious to the intellect, and more probably to the moral character。(2008年50题)
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They want to explain whywe possess certain characteristics and exhibit certain behaviors。(1990年61题)
Behaviorists suggest thatthe child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli whichdevelop his or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greaterintellectual development。(1990年64题)
“In short,” a leaderof the new school contends, “thescientific revolution, as we call it, was largely the improvement and inventionand use of a series of instruments that expanded the reach of science ininnumerable directions。”(1994年72题)
But that, Pearson points out,is only the start of man-machine integration:“It will be the beginning of thelong process of integration that will ultimately lead to a fully electronichuman before the end of the next century。”(2001年73题)
This alone demonstrates thatthe television business is not an easy world to survive in, a fact underlinedby statistics that show that out of eighty European television networks, noless than 50% took a loss in
He asserted, also, thathis power to follow a long and purely abstract train of thought was verylimited, for which reason he felt certain that he never could have succeededwith mathematics。(2008年47)
He adds humbly thatperhaps he was “superior to the common run of men in noticing things whicheasily escape attention, and in observing them carefully。”(2008年49题)
It may be said that the measure of theworth of any social institution is its effect in enlarging and improvingexperience, but this effect is not a part of its original motive。(2009年46题)
On the whole such aconclusion can be drawn with a certain degree of confidence, but only ifthe child can be assumed to have had the same attitude towards the test as theothers with whom he is being compared, and only if he was not punished by lackof relevant information which they possessed。(1992年75题)
but we have at least drawnnear the point of admitting that birds should continue as a matter ofintrinsic right, regardless of the presence or absence of economic advantage tous。(2010年47题)