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英语:第二章 名师手记

日期:2019-10-13编辑作者:新葡亰4473官网

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第十六讲 简单句、并列句和复合句

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一。考试大纲须要

  语法知识点1

试验大纲须求考生能科学判别句子的花色、剖析句子结构、结合语境和句意选取安妥的接连词语、推断主语和从句的不错语序、稳妥选择主句和从句谓语动词的时态。

  1.as...as.。。教导的相比级:(1)“as +形容词或副词原级+ as+被相比对象”结构。例句: He studies as hard as you. 他像你同样学习努力。

二。命题导向

  (2)在否定句或难点句中可用 not so…as…. 例句:He can not run so/as fast as you. 他没你跑得快。

高等学园统招考试对简易句、并列句和复合句的考察首要不外乎:句子的结构、连词的抉择、从句与主句的谓语动词的时态、主语和从句的语序、一些习贯用语和新鲜的句式应用。

  2.only指引的倒装句型:only +状语 (或状语从句)位于句首时,句子部分倒装。 

三。复习要点

  例句: Only by diligence and honesty can one succeed in life.  唯有努力、正直,壹个人在生活中技巧不负义务。 

1.轻巧句、并列句和复合句

  注意:但 only修饰主语时,不倒装。例句: Only that girl knew how to work out the problem.  唯有那位女子知道怎么样解那道题。

① 句子类别三种分类法

  3.wish指导的虚构语气:wish 前边的从句,今世表与真情相反的事态,或代表今后不太大概完成的心愿时,其宾语从句的动词方式为: 

依据句子的用处,丹麦语的语句可分:陈诉句(认定、否定)、疑问句(常常、特殊、采用、反意)、祈使句、惊讶句等多种。

  ⑴表示对现在情况的杜撰:从句动词用过去式或过去进行式表示,be 的过去式用were.   

依照句子的构造可分:轻松句并列句和复合句三种。

  I wish I knew the answer to the question.    小编盼望知道这些题目标答案。(缺憾不明了。) 

简易句唯有三个主语或并列主语和一个谓语或并列谓语。并列句由并列连词and, but, or,so等)或分集团(;)把五个或三个以上的简要句连在一同构成。复合句:含有三个或七个上述从句的语句。复合句包蕴:状语从句名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句)和定语从句等三种。

  ⑵代表对过去事态的杜撰:从句动词用had +过去分词。 

② 并列句的归类

  I wish (that) I hadn’t wasted so much time.  小编后悔不应该浪费这么多时光。( 实际桐月经浪费掉了。) 

一碗水端平句指把四个同样首要的句子连接在一块,句子之间常用and, not only…but also…, neither…nor…, then等并称连词连接。

  ⑶表示对明代的不合理愿望:谓语动词情势为“would/ should/ could/ might +动词原形”。在这种情景下,主句的主语与从句的主语无法长久以来,因为主句的主语所期望的从句动作能不可能达成,决议于从句主语的姿态或希望(非动作名词除了那个之外) 。 

代表采纳事关常用的连词有:or, either…or…, otherwise等

  I wish it would stop raining.  但愿雨能止住。 

代表转会关系常用的连词有:but, still, however, yet, while, when等。

  注意:若wish 后的宾语从句中用 would,能够象征央浼,日常意味着说话人的难熬或可惜。

代表因果关系常用的连词有:so, for, therefore等。

  例句:I wish you would be quiet.  我愿意您安然一些。 

2.状语从句:

  4.it方式宾语:和it 作格局主语同样,  大家常用it 来作格局宾语, 把真正的宾语从句放在句末, 这种场所更是出现在带复合宾语的句子中。

(1)状语从句的归类

  例句:He has made it clear that he will not give in. 他注脚她不会屈服。 

状语从句平时修饰主句的动词或任何句子,由附属连词引导,从属连词在从句中不担负句子成分。根据状语从句所表明的例外含义和功能,可分为时间、地方、原因、条件、目标、结果、妥洽、相比、格局等状语从句。

  5.The+比较级,the+比较级  表示“越....。。越....。。”。

(2)连接状语从句的用语

  例句:The more scared we are, the stronger the difficulty will become。我们越惊愕困难,困难就能够变得越强盛。

时刻状语从句:when, whenever每当……,after, before, as, as soon as, hardly/ scarcely...when..., no sooner...than.。.一……就……,while, till, until, since, once。名词词组the first time第二次,last time最终贰回,every/each time每一遍,the next time下一次,the next day第二天, the moment, the minute, the second, the instant 一……就……;副词immediately, instantly, directly等也可作连词使用。

  语法知识点2

由来状语从句:because, since, as, now that。

  1. 宾语从句:平日难题句做宾语,引入if或whether

地点状语从句:where,wherever(无论这里)。

  例句: I want to know if he will join us in the discussion?

低头状语从句: no matter who/whom/what/which/how/when/where, though, although, as, even if /even though, whatever, whoever, however, wherever, whenever等。

  2. 缘由状语从句:since指点的

规格状语从句: if, unless, as/so long as(假诺;只要),in case (万一); on condition that(若是), suppose, supposing, providing, provide。

  例句: Don’t eat too much sugar since it is bad for your health。

指标状语从句:in order that (为了),so that (以便)。

  3. 否定词前置倒装:scarcely...when。.

正如状语从句:(not) as/so…as…,than…, the more…the more…(越……越……) 辅导。

  例句: Scarcely had he arrived at home when it began to rain。

措施状语从句:as(正如;依照),as if/as though (好像)指导。

  4. If虚构条件句

结果状语从句: so that (结果是), so/such…that (如此……以致于)。

  从句 主句
跟现在事实相反 一般过去式(be用were) would/should/might/could +动原
跟过去事实相反 had+done would/should/might/could+have done
跟将来事实相反 should+动原;were to do sth would/should/might/could +动原

(3)从句中的语序

  5. 宾语从句:放在介词前边,作介词的宾语。

复合句中常见使用陈诉语序。可是,在底下的两种情景下,状语从句多使用倒装语序:

  例句:I know nothing about him except that he used to work in Shanghai。

①当连词as, though连接妥洽状语从句时,作表语的名词、形容词、动词经常置于句首,构成都部队分倒装语序。举个例子:

  6.状语从句轻松(分词作状语):从句的主语和状语从句的主语一致,状从简单选择分词作者状语。例句:

Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone who’s as capable as John。

  (Because) being short of money, we can’t afford a TV set. =Because we are short of money, we can’t afford a TV set。

Try as she might, Carol couldn't get the door open。

  语法知识点3

Strange though it may seem, I like housework。

  1.并列句:由and, or , but连接的四个句子成为并列句。

②在so/such...that.。.结果状语从句中,so+形容词/副词或such+名词置于句首时,主句选用局地倒装语序。举个例子:

  2.省略句 /倒装:so/系动词/助动词/情态动词 +sb 表示“前边一个情状适用于后世”。例句:

So successful was her business that Marie was able to set up new branches elsewhere.

  You are a student, so am I。

Such was the force of the explosion that windows were blown out。

  3.定语从句 who教导的限定性定从。例句:

③在hardly/scarcely...when..., no sooner...than.。.句式中,把hardly/scarcely/no sooner置于句首时,第叁个分句选用局地倒装语序,即把第贰个分句用陈诉语序。比如:

  Do you remember the girl who taught us English ?你还记得教我们阿拉伯语的非常女孩啊?

Scarcely had he sat down when there was a knock at the door。

  5.倒装:否定词seldom前移,句子倒装。例句:Seldom did he speak。

④ however与形容词、副词一齐指导迁就状语从句,句子采纳汇报语序。比如:

  4.宾语从句:whether的用法。例句:I wonder if/whether it is going to rain tomorrow。

However amusing the story is, I have to put it away and focus my attention on study this week。

  5.不定式做定语。例句:The only way to solve our problems will continue to be rejected。

⑤ 在the +比较级the+相比级句式中,只是把形容词或副词置于句首,句子仍旧接纳陈诉语序。例如:Education is about learning and the more you learn, the more equipped for life you are。

  6.原因状从:now that的用法。now that 代表 “既然”。与 since 的分裂之处在于,now that 引出的必得是二个新出现的真情或状态,要是依旧依旧,和过去对待并从未转换,则不用 now that 辅导。

(4)从句和主句中谓语动词的时态

  例句:Now that we have all the materials ready, we should begin the new task at once。既然大家把富有素材都企图好了,我们应当霎时早先那项新的做事。

在复合句中,主句和从句的谓语动词时态平时遵照以下的规律:

  7. 缘故状从:for的用法。由because 教导的从句假若放在句末,且前面有逗号,则足以用并列连词 for 来替代。但要是否注解直接原因,而是三种情况再说推断,就只能用 for 。例句:He is absent today, because/for he is ill. 他后日没来,因为她病倒了。

①象征“同不经常候”意义的连词as, when, as soon as, the moment, while 等连接的时间状语从句,主句和从句时态基本一致。比如:As time passed, things seemed to get worse。

  8. 原因状从:as 的用法。例句:The Singapore passengers begin to decrease as other airlines spread their operating range。

② 表示“以后”意义的规范、时间和妥洽状语从句中多用通常今后时,而主句用日常以往时,被可以称作“主将从现”。举例:Tomwon’t go to sleep unless his mother tells him a story。

  9. 同位语从句:I want to know the answer to this question who will be our next president。

Once I get him a job, he’ll be fine。

  原因状从: in that的用法。例句:

③ since引导的时日状语从句多用日常过去时,而含有since从句的主句日常用明日做到时。比如:I haven’t met her since I left university。

  Privatization is thought to be beneficial in that it promotes competition. 独资化的优点在于能有利于相互竞争。

④在句式hardly/scarcely…when…, no sooner…than…中,第二个分句中过去产生时,第三个分句用平时过去时。举个例子:She had hardly sat down when the phone rang。

  10. 不定式:不定式做目的状语。例句:We get up very early to catch the first bus。

⑤ 在as if/though 指点的状语从句中,即使表示一种与实际相反夸张,从句多用日常过去时或过去做到时。譬喻:She stared at me as though I were a complete stranger。

  文章来源:跨考教育[微博]

(5)状语从句的简易

当从句的主语与主句的主语相同一时间,被动结构的状语从句,可粗略与主句同样的主语和助动词,保留连词+过去分词;主动组织的状语从句,可粗略与主句同样的主语和助动词,保留连词+未来分词。举个例子:We all know that, if not carefully dealt with, the situation will get worse。

Though lacking money, his parents managed to send him to university。

(6)状语从句被用于着重提出协会中

状语从句作为被重申有些用以强调组织时,一律用It is/was …that…,不能够用when代替that。句子用陈说语序。注意:当重申Not until +时间/时间状语时,主句的谓语动词不再接纳倒装语序。举个例子:It was not until the war was over that the soldier was able to return home。

  1. 名词性从句

(1)名词性从句分类:

依照在句中的功用,名词性从句分为:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句各类。

(2) 名词性从句的连接词

名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:that无词义,在从句中不担负成分,有时可被总结;表示“是还是不是”用whether,独有在宾语从句中,whether可被人if代替。Whether和if在从句中不担负元素。倘使从句缺乏主语、表语、宾语、或定语等语句成分,用延续代词what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which;借使从句贫乏状语,用延续副词when, where, how, why。

鉴于一连代词与连接副词在句中不再是疑问句,由此从句中谓语不用难点语序。连接代词与连接副词在从句充作句子成分,而连日词whether 和if(是或不是),在从句中不担当句子成分,只起三番五次功效。

(3) 名词性从句中的特殊时态

① 在偏下两种主语从句中,主语从句的谓语动词要用“should+动词原形”, should可粗略。

(1)It is+形容词+that…句型。常见的形容词有important, necessary, natural, funny, strange, surprising, astonishing(令人诧异的)等。

(2) It is +名词+that…句型。常见的名词有pity, shame, advice, suggestion, proposal(建议,建议), requirement, request, desire, order等。

(3) It is+动词的过去分词+ that…句型。常见的动词有advise, order, propose, request, suggest, demand, require等。

②在insist(坚定不移), urge (督促), order(命令), command(命令), suggest(提议),advise(提议),recommend(提议,推荐), request(央浼,供给), demand(须要),require(供给,必要)等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”, should可粗略。

③ 在蕴藏advice, order, demand, proposal(建议), requirement, suggestion等名词的表语从句、同位语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”,should可归纳。

④在一部分意味着傻眼、毅力等激情色彩的名词性从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”或“should +have done”,译为“竟然,居然”。例如:

I am surprised /shocked that you should speak in such a way。

I find it astonishing that he should be so rude to his mum。

It is strange /surprising that she should not have been invited。

I am glad that your story should have won the first prize。

  1. 定语从句

(1)定语从句的归类

定语从句分为限制性定语从句非限制性定语从句三种。限制性定语从句对先行词起修饰和界定作用,而非限制性定语从句对先行词起补充和释疑表达效益。通常限制性定语从句与先行词之间一直不逗号,而非限制性定语从句与先行词之间有逗号隔离。

(2)定语从句的关系代词和涉及副词

定语从句平时由关系代词和涉及副词引导。关系代词有:who, whom, whose, which, that, as;关系副词有:when, where, why。关系代词和涉嫌副词必须放在从句之首,主句的先行词之后,起着连连先行词和从句的效果与利益,相同的时候在从句中又当作句子成分。

(3)关系代词和事关副词的用法:

①超越行词为人时用who 作主语,whom作宾语;②超越行词为物或任何句猪时用which,可作主语或宾语;③先行词为人、物时用that ,可作主语或宾语;④ whose用作定语,可指人或物;⑤ 关系副词when指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语;⑥where(指地方,在定语从句中作地方状语);why指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。

(4)限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的分别

①限制性定语从句:从句与主句关系密切,去掉从句,主句意义不完全,以至不合逻辑。比如:I was the only person in our office who was invited。(去掉定语从句,句意就不完整)

② 非限制性定语从句:从句与先行词关系不细致,去掉定从句,意思如故平安无事。情势上用逗号隔开分离,不能够that用教导。比方:His movie won several awards at the film festival, which was beyond his wildest dream. (去掉定语从句,主句的意思仍完整)

(5)使用定语从句时需注意的多少个难点

①用that而不用 which的景况:先行词为不定代词all, anything, nothing, much…;先行词有最高端修饰,有序数词修饰;先行词有only, very, any等词修饰;先行词既有人又有物时。举例:There is nothing that can prevent him from doing it。

The first place that they visited in Guilin was Lijing。

This is the best coffee maker that I have ever been made。

Mr Smith is the only foreigner teacher that he knows。

② 用which而不用 that的情景:指点非限制性定语从句;指代整个主句的意思;用于介词 的末尾+ 关系代词。举例:Chan’s restaurant on Baker Street, which used to be poorly run, is now a successful business. For many cities in the world, there is no room to spread our further, of which New York is an example。

③ 关系代词as的用法

a. 当现行反革命词为 the same +名词,such+名词时,要用关系代词as指引定语从句。比如:

I want to buy the same shirt as yours。

Such machines as are used in our workshop are made in Germany。

b. as可代替主句的内容,指引的非限制性定语从句既可放在主句以前,也可放在主句之后。常用于下列句型:as is known to all, as is said, as is reported, as is announced, as we all know, as I expect 等。比如: He got the first place again in this mid-term examination, as we expected。

c. as 教导非限制性定语从句时与which的界别

当主句和从句语义一致时,用as辅导;反之,用which来教导非限制性定语从句;当非限制订语从句为否定意义时,常用which辅导。举个例子:

He made a long speech, as we expected。

He made a long speech, which was unexpected。

④涉嫌代词在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词单数依然用复数应由先行词决定。比如:

The man who lives downstairs makes it a rule to run in the park in the morning。

⑤ 辅导定语从句的关系副词有的时候能够用“介词 + which”来代替。比方:

October 1, 1949 was the day on which (= when) the new China was founded。

⑥在”介词+关系代词”结构中,关系代词只可以用which和whom,且不可能大约;尽管介词在句末,关系代词可用which, that, whom, 口语中也可用who,且可总结。举个例子:

The man (whom/ who/ that) you were talking about is proves to be friendly。

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